Fullerenes (also known as buckyballs because of their football like shapes) are molecules which consist of a network of sp2 hybridised carbons in pentagons and hexagons which form a spherical molecule.
Buckyballs are also formed via shining a laser onto graphite but under different conditions to nanotubes.The most common fullerene is a 60-carbon molecule and is shaped like a football consisting of pentagons surrounded by hexagons to form a sphere:

Buckminsterfullerenes were first discovered in 1985 by the now Nobel Prize Laureates; Robert F. Curl Jr. and Richard E. Smalley, both of Rice University in Houston, Texas and Harold W. Kroto of the University of Sussex in England.

Nanotubes, like fullerenes are closed allotropes of carbon and are made in the same way but with the conditions altered slightly.


Title Page, Introduction, The Basics of Nanotubes, From Buckyballs to Nanotubes, Synthesis of Nanotubes, Present and Future Uses for Nanotubes, Contact Details.