Nitration

Reaction

Nitration Reaction

Mechanism

Nitration Mechanism

The nitrogen in the nitrate group of HNO3 isn't a strong enough elecrophile to nitrate benzene. Because of this we activate the nitrogen by addition of concentrated sulfuric acid which produces the nitronium ion, NO2+, which is able to bring about nitration of the benzene ring at moderate temperatures.

Generation of +NO2

Nitration Reaction

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Copyright 2002 Nick Barwell.