deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing has been used since 1985. In the beginning,
DNA testing could be performed only by laboratories with molecular diagnostic
capabilities. The credibility and reliability of these labs needed to be
established along with standardized procedures for the handling of samples.
Currently, molecular diagnostic techniques are commonly used. For example, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be performed by numerous labs with firmly established standards and quality control protocols. Consequently, the likelihood of criticizing the applied statistics of forensic DNA testing has been virtually eliminated.