4. Tics - The Simple and Complex
The tics exhibited by individuals affected by Tourette's can be broken down into two distinct groupings. These are classified as Simple and Complex and can be attributed to both Motor and Vocal tics. It is difficult to define the difference between these two types of tics. Simple tics seem to be spontaneous and are usually quite rapid. Complex tics require more exaggerated behaviours and seem to have a more purposeful role. Some common examples of these are:
Simple Motor Tics - Eye blinking, grimacing, nose twitching, shoulder shrugging, kicking, finger movements, jaw snapping, frowning, tensing parts of the body, and rapid jerking of any part of the body.
Complex Motor Tics - Hopping, clapping, touching objects (or others or self), throwing, arranging, gyrating, biting, arm thrusting, striking out, picking scabs, rolling eyes upwards or side-to-side, making funny facial expressions, sticking out the tongue, kissing, pinching.
Simple Vocal Tics - Coughing, spitting, screeching, barking, grunting, gurgling, clacking, whistling, hissing, sucking sounds.
Complex Vocal Tics - These tics can be categorised into several areas:
Echolalia - The repeating of sounds or words of others.
Coprolalia - Obscene, aggressive, or otherwise socially unacceptable words or phrases.
Speech atypicalities - Unusual rhythms, tones, accents, loudness, and very rapid speech.
Rituals - Repeating a phrase.