Antibiotics are antibacterials that come from microorganisms, or compounds that have a molecular structure similar to materials produced by microorganisms. They are based on the idea of microbial antagonism first observed by Pastur and Joubert in 1877.

The enzymes contained in bacteria, fungi and molds produce antibiotics. A potent source of antibiotics is the microbes found in the soil. Other 14,000 antibitoics have been identified but most are useless as they are toxic to humans



Antibacterials are compounds that attack microorganisms, the most useful ones are those that attack illness-causing bacteria without harming the host. Some actually kill bacteria but most inhibit their reproduction.


            Bacteria are unicellular organisms having a sturdy peptide/carbohydrate cell wall surrounding a fragile plasma membrane. Bacteria are classified by shape. They occur as rods known as bacilli, spheres known as coca, spirals known as spirilla and incomplete spirals, which are called vibrios.