IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature: A system of naming chemical compounds.

Viscosity: A measure of the resistance to flow that a fluid offers when it is subjected to shear stress.

Volatile: Evaporates readily at normal temperatures and pressures.

RDX (Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine): This nitroamine a major component of many military explosives.  

IUPAC Name: 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine

Chemical Formula: C3H6N6O6


PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate): One of the strongest known high explosives.

IUPAC Name: 1,3-Dinitrato-2,2-bis(nitratomethyl)propane

Chemical Formula: C5H8N4O12


Deflagration: Subsonic combustion that propagates through a gas or along the surface of an explosive at a rapid rate driven by the transfer of heat.

Coronary artery: One of two arteries that arise from the base of the aorta and carry blood to the muscle of the heart.

Apnea: Suspension of external breathing.

Close cubic packing (CCP): The packing of spheres so as to occupy the minimum amount of space. In a single plane, each sphere is surrounded by 6 close neighbours in a hexagonal arrangement. The spheres in the second plane fit into depressions in the first layer, and so on. Each sphere has 12 other touching spheres. In cubic close packing the spheres in the thrid layer occupy a different set of depressions than those in the first. The arrangement is ABCABC.....


Endosymbiosis: When the symbiont (the smaller, 'micro', member of the two members of a symbiosis) lives either in the intracellular space of the host (larger, 'macro', member) or extracellularly.

LD50: The dose that is lethal to 50% of the population

Hyperpolarization: Increase in the charge difference across the plasma membrane; causes the charge difference to move away from 0 mV