Howlers of the week 2001-2002
These are all
genuine sentences and paragraphs that were written by students in their write-ups for the 2nd
year practical on High Temperature Superconductivity. Remember that all spelling mistakes,
grammatical errors, and errors of logic are all entirely theirs, and have been reproduced
exactly as they appeared on the student's script.
- We have an isolated Cu 3+ ion in the lattice, which is unstable, but happy for the moment.
- The makes the 2+ ion 3+ and the 3+ ion 2+.
- At high temperatures the atoms would be wobbling about.
- At low temperatures the ions in the lattice are almost stationery.
- The values were taken from a computer and so are deadly accurate.
- The point which gave no result as such in the simulation are still valid, but plot 2
really contains too many points although plot 1 does not contain these zero points it has a
more realistic amount of points.
- The Cu3+ ion pinches its neighbours electron.
- High temperature superconductors are the new race of superconducting materials.
- This introduces a 2+ into the hole of a 3+ ion.
- But an element just can't have an oxidation state of fractional distinction because
charge exists as whole electrons, which have integer status.
- The electron gets near the defect and gives it exactly what it wants.
- Overall, this experiment has proved to be successful and relatively interesting.
The topic is of cutting edge importance with the race on to discover a room temperature
superconductor. Many Nobel prizes have been won. These reasons make it such an
enjoyable branch of Chemistry. Especially for students.
- Errors are inevitable when performing in the laboratory.
- The oxygens have a heavy negative charge.
- As an electron (from the currant) is going between the rows, a kind of ripple effect
is caused among the Cu2+ ions and they move closer together. The 3+ charge
like a wave will move to the right of the illustration. This causes the graph to hit
the x-axis. When the temperature is high the lattice moves up and down as well as left
to right therefore there are no electrons to make the ripple. Hence there is no temperature.
- The axial ligands on the copper ion elongate causing a crystal field diagram.
- Superconductors are conductors that don't have any friction.
- I plugged in very small values of x into the computer. After a rough range had
been highlighted, I then plugged in serious values of x.
- As the temperature increases, this results in uneasy transitions for the electrons.
Above a certain temperature, the electrons bang into the Cu atoms, knocking them out of
- In truth it doesn't matter which theory you believe since it's all the same in the
- The two structures are very similar especially in the stokiomentry of the formula.
- The O cannot go into the Cu-O planes as it would utterly destroy them.
- Other lanthium cuprates have been found to be superconductors, such as
- The d orbitals move out of the way of the skipping electron. But when the electron
passed the Cu2+ ion next to the Cu3+ ion the Cu2+ ion's d-orbitals are repelled towards the
Cu3+ ion and an electron from the Cu2+ ion jumps into the empty d-orbital of the Cu3+ and
the original Cu2+ ion becomes a Cu3+ ion.
- The electron that jumps from the Cu2+ to the Cu3+ experiences
no resistance, as there is nothing to resist it.
- Heating in oxygen forces extra elections into the lattice.
- This is the underling aim of the experiment.
- The graph will be a bell.
- Superconductors can levitate trains and the like.
- Superconductors can also be made by ramming more oxygens into the starting material. But
the disadvantage is that ramming in oxygens in this way could force between the copper
chains, thus preventing supoerconductivity. But they don't.
- Above Tc, there is enough energy to shatter the electron.
- There is a difference in the carbon monoxide-ordination number of the Cu.
- When the electron is gone, the orbitals flop back into place. The Cu3+
is very keen on electrons.
- In total 17 points were taken, not too many, and not too few.
- This is a p-type superconductor as it looks like a hole.
- The electron bounces along the chain.
- This data shoes that the Cu3+ snaps up the electron.
- This hypothesis is generally less favoured than the other one on the sheer
grounds of basic comprehension.
- n-type superconductors follow the other path.
- The current electrons transmit the charge along atom thick wires of themselves.
- The inclusion of the 3+ to chain 1 enables an electron from the adjacent 2+ to
jump over when distorted by a current itself becoming a 3+ and thus the process continues.
- The transferred electron is the superconductor, since it moves from orbital to
orbital without danger.
- The copper has to change its oxidation state to keep the complex neutrally charged.
- If there were too little Cu3+, the elctron would have to keep passing the charge along
without hitting an atom (which is imposible), so scatter of electron is easily occur, which
- The graph was then looked at to look for large kinks.
- The solvent used in the experiment was liquid helium.
- The superconductor is then cooked in an oven.
- At high temperatures the wires wobble, and the electrons bounce down them.
- It was possible to plot a graph in a few minutes using a computer that would have
required days to obtain experimentally. Of course, someone must have spent this time in
a lab in order to be able to produce such a program, but it does make life easier
And a bonus one from a third year practical report:
- In 1938, Evans concluded calculations on the Ea of the Diels-Alder reaction
based on the diabetic method ...