Howlers of the week 2004-2005
These are all genuine sentences and paragraphs that were written by students in their write-ups for the 2nd
year practical on High Temperature Superconductivity. Remember that spelling mistakes,
grammatical errors, and errors of logic are all entirely theirs, and have been reproduced
exactly as they appeared on the student's script.
- The computer was used to simulate the superconductivity of different mole fractions of
- It prefers to be a square planner.
- The 6 surrounding electrons have a high electron density.
- Although given the name high temperature superconductors, this compound still only
exhibits the properties at around 40K which is by no means a hot.
- The orbitals (with electrons in them) are pushed back, like flaps opening.
- The pairs of d-orbitals part like curtains as the electron moves from left to right.
- At very low temperatures, thermal motions a miniscule and the nuclei are 'seen'.
- When a current is passed down a wire the electrons repel the electrons on the atoms
out of their way as they go past (analagous to people walking through "saloon" style doors).
- For something to be conductor an electron is passed through the molecule and
creating a currant.
- Too many ions will terminate the superconductor.
- The oxygen can be squashed into the copper oxygen lattice planner which will give the
optimum oxidation state of copper at air temperature.
- Therefore it could have been seemed that the unusual coppers have been
- As it is energetically more stable than the octahedral molecule but this is not the case
due to steric effects, which outweigh the energetic effects, and therefore in this molecule
Cu forms a six coordinate bond with oxygen these bonds are not all of the same length
due to the John Teller distortion effect the octahedral molecule will be stretched at
the top and bottom.
- The highly charged Cu3+ is desirous for electrons, but due to high activation energy cannot.
- A superconductor has the ability to illustrate zero electrical energy.
- Because of this the copper atoms vibrate more frequently, causing them to swell in size.
- When an electron hits a copper, resistance is felt.
- They will superconduct if electrons hit an orbital next to a defect.
- During normal conductivity the electrons bounce between Cu2+ ions. If the electron
hits a d-orbital, then the orbital rises and falls to let the electron pass. This causes heat.
- The graph was complete when a smooth line was obtained, and a graph which one could
extrapolate off of.
- It is only possible to contain the Cu3+ ions because of the large amounts of -ve charge
that is generated. Thanks to all the O2- ions present in the material.
- High temperature superconductors have a misleading name, but the name simply stuck.
- If the orbital goes too close to the +ve ion, the ion will tear an electron out of
- The copper-oxygen distance not same since there are some stretch between the bond.
- It has been concerned that an electron would hit one of the Cu2+ ions on the B plane,
and one Cu3+ ion would exist on the A plane. As the electron has been passed through
and jumping forward on the A plane, the electron would have pushed away all electrons
on Cu2+ ions on A and B planes on the way moving along the B plane. Therefore it
could have been seemed that that the unusual Cu3+ ions have been jumping backwards with
the positive charge. When the x value was more than 0.245 the Cu3+ ions could have caused
the crystal too unstable with high energy; hence all the crystals could have been easily
- It was also decided that the Nd compound was a n-type superconductor. Although this
may have originally sounded improbable, it works!
- Cu3+ desperately wants an electron.
- Conductivity is more efficient at low temperatures, this is due to the fact that there
are less molecular vibrations, and this is the reason for resistance in the first place, which gives
less resistance. From this, it is obvious why superconductors favour low temperatures.
- The superconductor was made from Lanthonium cuprate.
- The electrons within the d-orbitals are repelled, and 'flap' away from the incoming
- The top and bottom bonds are stretched due to the John Teller effect.
- It looks like the positive charge moves up the coppers.
- The compound was therefore classed as a high temperature superconductor as it conducted electricity
at a much higher temperature than what other compounds do.
- High Tc superconductirs exhibit superconductivity up to relatively high, although still very, high
temperatures. recently superconductors have been discovered with TC's of well above the melting point of
- Many points were investigated until a curve formed. After that the graph vanished.
- Cu3+ is a rare species of copper, not often seen in Nature.
- Superconductors will allow us to see self levitiating trains, reducing traffic and power cables that do
not loose great deals of electricity - giving us a far cleaner future.
- A collision with a Cu ion kills off the electron.
- The Cu ion steals its neighbour's electron and places it in its own orbital.
- The Cu3+ ion needs two more electrons to become Cu2+.
- This experiment produced a good graph.
- Once a superconductor is in motion, it will stay that way forever.
- To make an educated decision about where to go next, a graph was plotted with that single point on it.
- From this it was found that the values had values between 0.1 and 0.3. More points were then found,
and a final graph was found.
- All complexes want to be square planar complexes.
- If this experiment were to take place in a laboratory it would be a time consumating process!
- The electrons leap-frog the coppers going from one bond to the next.
And one from a library project: 'the free energy of Salvation'.
And a classic one from this year's Excel workshop: Spot the error...