Arabic al-kimiya


Khemeia, or ‘al-kimiya’ in Arabic, was developed with novel ideas and much enthusiasm in Arab countries.

Jabir ibn-Hayyan (c. 719-813 AD) soon became the most influential alchemist of the Arabic world.  His work included descriptions of ammonium chloride, acetic acid and nitric acid, as well as furthering the field of classic alchemy.  


Alchemy: "Transmute yourselves from dead stones into living philosophical stones."
- Gerhardt Dorn




Persian physician Al-Razi (c. 850-925 AD) (see left) was credited with the application of plaster of Paris to holding broken bones in place, thus promoting the use of chemistry in medicine.



Al-Razi: image reproduced from




European alchemy

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