building blocks of proteins.
Type of white blood cell. Play an important role in the immune system.
Generally involved in activating other cells.
Genetic material of living organisms. Composed of four types of
bases : Adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C).
One base, a molecule of phosphate and a sugar form a nucleotide.
DNA is double-stranded i.e. it consists of two polynucleotide
chains. The sequence of bases in one chain determines that in the
other - the two chains are said to be complimentary.
of biological systems. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. They
are used to catalyse many chemical reactions and importantly are
Integrates HIV proviral DNA into the DNA of the host cell. Target
for new drugs.
a base molecule+a sugar+phosphate
a base molecule+a sugar
Contain a single strand of RNA. Replicate through DNA intermediates
- Genetic information flows from RNA to DNA, DNA
complimentary to viral RNA is synthesized in the host
cell by reverse
transcriptase, an enzyme brought into the cell by the
infecting virus particle. Reverse transcriptase first catalyses
the synthesis of DNA, then the digestion of RNA and finally the
synthesis of a second strand of DNA.
A chain of amino acids
a viral enzyme. Catalyses synthesis of DNA from an RNA template.
An enzyme which converts single-stranded RNA into double-stranded
DNA. Making DNA from RNA is reverse transcription.
Genetic material, normally single stranded. Composed of four types
of bases : Adenine (A), guanine (G), uracil (U) and cytosine (C).
A section of DNA is copied to make RNA.
Complete extracellular form of a virus consisting of DNA or RNA
surrounded by a coat.
Do not have a cellular structure and can only reproduce by invading
living cells. They have a simple structure, consisting of a small
piece of DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protective coat of protein
(capsid). A few viruses have an additional layer around the capsid