Diamond has a negative electron affinity, and this means that electrons can be emitted from its surface with little or no loss of energy. If a high voltage is used to extract the electrons, this is called 'field emission', and the electrons can be accelerated and made to strike a phosphor screen. This is the basis of so-called cold cathode field emission displays, which may be a competing technology for the lucrative LCD or plasma screen market.
Alternatively, the electrons can be extracted from the surface simply by heating the diamond to temperatures above around 350°C. This 'boiling' off of electrons is known as 'thermionic emission', and occurs at a much lower temperature in diamond than in other materials. The emitted electrons can be made to strike an electrode, so completing an electric circuit. Thus, heat has been converted into electricity which is exactly what is required for solar cells. The light/heat from the sun will be focused down using lenses onto a diamond thermionic device, and the resulting heat used to generate electricity. The hope is that this process will be significantly more efficient than existing silicon-based solar cells, making solar power a viable energy source at last!
At Bristol, we are experimenting with various types of diamond for use as the thermionic emission layer, including Li-doped nanodiamond particles which are simply inkjet-printed onto flat sheets of glass. We have already achieved very promising current levels at temperatures <400°C. The energy company EON have just given us a 1M euro grant to try to build a working solar panel based on this novel technology.
The hydrogenated diamond surface has a negative electron affinity (NEA) which means that the bottom of the conduction band lies above the vacuum level. Thus, any electrons which can be promoted into the conduction band can be emitted readily into vacuum. However, this hydrogenated surface begins to desorb at temperatures above about 500°C. We are studying a number of alternative termination chemistries which provide NEA as well as being termperature stable. These involve various metal oxides, including LiO, AlO, MgO, TiO, ScO and SiO. These terminations are studied theoretically using DFT modelling. This allows the geometries and stability, as well as the NEA for each termination to be predicted. Experimentally, we use the new NanoESCA facility to oxidise, anneal, deposit the submonolayer of the chosen metal, as well as analyse this by XPS, UPS and PEEM, without breaking vacuum.
- K.M. O’Donnell,, T.L. Martin, N.A. Fox and D. Cherns, "The Li-adsorbed C(100)-(1x1):O Diamond Surface", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1282 (2011)
- K. M. O’Donnell, T. L. Martin, N. A. Fox, and D. Cherns, "Ab initio investigation of lithium on the diamond C(100) surface", Phys. Rev. B 82, (2010) 115303
- Tomas Martin, PhD thesis, University of Bristol July 2011, "Lithium-oxygen termination as a negative electron affinity surface on diamond: a computational and photoemission study".
- M.C. James, P.W. May, A. Croot, N.L. Allan, "A Theoretical Study of Negative Electron Affinity from Aluminium on the Diamond (100) Surface", J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 30 (2018) 235002.
- H. Dominguez-Andrade, A. Croot, G. Wan, J.A. Smith, N.A. Fox, "Characterisation of thermionic emission current with a laser-heated system", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90 (2019) 045110.
- M.C. James, P.W. May, N.L. Allan, "Ab initio study of negative electron affinity from light metals on the oxygen-terminated diamond (111) surface", J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 31 (2019) 295002.
- H. Dominguez-Andrade, J. Anaya, A. Croot, M. Cattelan, D.J. Twitchen, M. Kuball, N.A. Fox, "Correlating Thermionic Emission with Specific Surface Reconstructions in a <100> Hydrogenated Single-Crystal Diamond", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12 (2020) 26534.
- M.C. James, F. Fogarty, R. Zulkharnay, N.A. Fox, P.W. May, "A Review of Surface Functionalisation of Diamond for Thermionic Emission Applications", Carbon 171 (2020) 532.
- S. Ullah, G. Wan, C. Kouzios, C. Woodgate, M. Cattelan, N.A. Fox, "Structure and electronic properties of Tin monoxide (SnO) and lithiated SnO terminated diamond (100) and its comparison with lithium oxide terminated diamond", Appl. Surf. Sci. 559 (2021) 149962.
- M.C. James, M. Cattelan, N.A. Fox, R.F. Sila, R.M. Silva, P.W. May, "Experimental Studies of Electron Affinity and Work Function from Aluminium on Oxidised Diamond (100) and (111) Surfaces", Physica Status Solidi B: Basic Solid State Phys. (2021) 2100027.
- Michael C. James, PhD, "Aluminium and Oxygen Termination of Diamond for Thermionic Applications", February 2020.
- Yuet Mun Gary Wan, PhD, "Characterization of Electron Emission From Diamond Surfaces For Energy Conversion Devices", January 2021.